The Nuremberg Code

The Nuremberg Code is a 10-point set of rules for the conduct of human experiments articulated in 1947 in the trials of Nazi doctors and bureaucrats convicted of crimes against humanity for their roles in concentration camp experiments.

The Nuremberg Code 70 Years Later

Jonathan D. Moreno

JAMA | Viewpoint, August 17, 2017

Related Material

Medicine Against Society: Lessons From the Third Reich

Jeremiah A. Barondess

JAMA | November 27, 1996

Teaching of Human Rights in US Medical Schools

Jeffrey Sonis

JAMA | November 27, 1996

Legacies of Nuremberg: Medical Ethics and Human Rights

Michael A. Grodin and George J. Annas

JAMA | November 27, 1996

The Foundations of Bioethics

James M. Humber

JAMA | November 27, 1996

The Path to Nuremberg in the Pages of JAMA, 1933-1939

William E. Seidelman

JAMA | November 27, 1996

Nazi Origins of an Anatomy Text: The Pernkopf Atlas

Howard A. Israel and William E. Seidelman

JAMA | November 27, 1996

Nazi Origins of an Anatomy Text: The Pernkopf Atlas

Richard S. Panush

JAMA | November 27, 1996

Nazi Origins of an Anatomy Text: The Pernkopf Atlas-Reply

Edward B. Hutton Jr

JAMA | November 27, 1996

The Declaration of Helsinki

The World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki provides principles for medical researchers to guide the ethical conduct of research involving human participants.

World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki

World Medical Association

JAMA | Special Communication, November 27, 2013

Previous Versions

Fifth Revision

JAMA | Special Communication, December 20, 2000

Perspectives on the Fifth Revision of the Declaration of Helsinki

Povl Riis

JAMA | Commentary, December 20, 2000

Fourth Revision

JAMA | March 19, 1997

Second Revision

JAMA | September 12, 1966

Original

JAMA | Medical News, September 28, 1964

Editorials and Correspondence

The Declaration of Helsinki, 50 Years Later

Paul Ndebele

JAMA | Viewpoint, November 27, 2013

The 50th Anniversary of the Declaration of Helsinki: Progress but Many Remaining Challenges

Joseph Millum and Coauthors

JAMA | Viewpoint, November 27, 2013

Declaration of Helsinki and Protection for Vulnerable Research Participants

Samia A. Hurst

JAMA | Comment & Response, March 26, 2014

Related material

International Research Ethics Education

Joseph Millum and Coauthors

JAMA | Viewpoint, February 3, 2015

How to Enroll Participants in Research Ethically

David Wendler

JAMA | Commentary, April 20, 2011

Legal Issues in Scientific Research

Paul E. Kalb and Kristin Graham Koehler

JAMA | Health Law and Ethics, January 2, 2002

Updating Protections for Human Subjects Involved in Research

Jonathan Moreno and Coauthors

JAMA | Policy Perspectives, December 9, 1998

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